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PMAS: The Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer. II. The Wide Integral Field Unit PPak
PPak is a new fiber-based integral field unit (IFU) developed at theAstrophysical Institute of Potsdam and implemented as a module into theexisting Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS) spectrograph.The purpose of PPak is to provide an extended field of view with a largelight-collecting power for each spatial element, as well as an adequatespectral resolution. The PPak system consists of a fiber bundle with 331object fibers, 36 sky fibers, and 15 calibration fibers. The object andsky fibers collect the light from the focal plane behind a focal reducerlens. The object fibers of PPak, each 2.7" in diameter, provide acontiguous hexagonal field of view of 74" × 64" on the sky, with afilling factor of 60%. The operational wavelength range is from 400 to900 nm. The PPak IFU, together with the PMAS spectrograph, are intendedfor the study of extended, low surface brightness objects, offering anoptimization of total light-collecting power and spectral resolution.This paper describes the instrument design, the assembly, integration,and tests, the commissioning and operational procedures, and presentsthe measured performance at the telescope.

Properties of isolated disk galaxies
We present a new sample of northern isolated galaxies, which are definedby the physical criterion that they were not affected by other galaxiesin their evolution during the last few Gyr. To find them we used thelogarithmic ratio, f, between inner and tidal forces acting upon thecandidate galaxy by a possible perturber. The analysis of thedistribution of the f-values for the galaxies in the Coma cluster leadus to adopt the criterion f ≤ -4.5 for isolated galaxies. Thecandidates were chosen from the CfA catalog of galaxies within thevolume defined by cz ≤5000 km s-1, galactic latitudehigher than 40o and declination ≥-2.5o. Theselection of the sample, based on redshift values (when available),magnitudes and sizes of the candidate galaxies and possible perturberspresent in the same field is discussed. The final list of selectedisolated galaxies includes 203 objects from the initial 1706. The listcontains only truly isolated galaxies in the sense defined, but it is byno means complete, since all the galaxies with possible companions underthe f-criterion but with unknown redshift were discarded. We alsoselected a sample of perturbed galaxies comprised of all the diskgalaxies from the initial list with companions (with known redshift)satisfying f ≥ -2 and \Delta(cz) ≤500 km s-1; a totalof 130 objects. The statistical comparison of both samples showssignificant differences in morphology, sizes, masses, luminosities andcolor indices. Confirming previous results, we found that late spiral,Sc-type galaxies are, in particular, more frequent among isolatedgalaxies, whereas Lenticular galaxies are more abundant among perturbedgalaxies. Isolated systems appear to be smaller, less luminous and bluerthan interacting objects. We also found that bars are twice as frequentamong perturbed galaxies compared to isolated galaxies, in particularfor early Spirals and Lenticulars. The perturbed galaxies have higherLFIR/LB and Mmol/LB ratios,but the atomic gas content is similar for the two samples. The analysisof the luminosity-size and mass-luminosity relations shows similartrends for both families, the main difference being the almost totalabsence of big, bright and massive galaxies among the family of isolatedsystems, together with the almost total absence of small, faint and lowmass galaxies among the perturbed systems. All these aspects indicatethat the evolution induced by interactions with neighbors would proceedfrom late, small, faint and low mass Spirals to earlier, bigger, moreluminous and more massive spiral and lenticular galaxies, producing atthe same time a larger fraction of barred galaxies but preserving thesame relations between global parameters. The properties we found forour sample of isolated galaxies appear similar to those of high redshiftgalaxies, suggesting that the present-day isolated galaxies could bequietly evolved, unused building blocks surviving in low densityenvironments.Tables \ref{t1} and \ref{t2} are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Near-infrared observations of galaxies in Pisces-Perseus. V. On the origin of bulges
We investigate the scaling relations of bulge and disk structuralparameters for a sample of 108 disk galaxies. Structural parameters ofindividual galaxies are obtained from two-dimensional bulge/diskdecomposition of their H-band surface brightness distributions. Bulgesare modelled with a generalized exponential (Sérsic) withvariable integer shape index n. We find that bulge effectivescalelengths reB and luminosity MBincrease with increasing n, but disk properties are independent of bulgeshape. As Hubble type T increases, bulges become less luminous and theirmean effective surface brightness <μeB>gets fainter; disk <μeD> shows a similar,but much weaker, trend. When bulge parameters(<μeB>, reB,MB) are compared with disk ones(<μeD>, reD,MD), they are tightly correlated for n=1 bulges. Thecorrelations gradually worsen with increasing n such that n=4 bulgesappear virtually independent of their disks. The Kormendy relation,<μeB> vs. reB, isshown to depend on bulge shape n; the two parameters are tightlycorrelated in n=4 bulges (r=0.8), and increasingly less so as ndecreases; disk <μeD> andreD are well correlated (r=0.7). Bulge-to-disksize ratios reB/reD areindependent of Hubble type, but smaller for exponential bulges; the meanreB/reD for n=1 bulges is 4times smaller than that for n=4, with a spread which is 9 times smaller.Strongly barred SB galaxies with exponential bulges are more luminousthan their unbarred counterparts. Exponential bulges appear to beclosely related to their underlying disks, while bulges with higher nvalues are less so; n=4 bulges and their disks apparently have norelation. We interpret our results as being most consistent with asecular evolutionary scenario, in which dissipative processes in thedisk are responsible for building up the bulges in most spirals.Based on observations at the TIRGO, NOT, and VATT telescopes. TIRGO(Gornergrat, CH) is operated by IRA-CNR, Arcetri, Firenze. NOT (LaPalma, Canary Islands) is operated by NOTSA, the Nordic ObservatoryScientific Association. VATT (Mt. Graham, AZ) is operated by VORG, theVatican Observatory Research Group.Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/905.

Structure of Disk-dominated Galaxies. I. Bulge/Disk Parameters, Simulations, and Secular Evolution
A robust analysis of galaxy structural parameters, based on the modelingof bulge and disk brightnesses in the BVRH bandpasses, is presented for121 face-on and moderately inclined late-type spirals. Each surfacebrightness (SB) profile is decomposed into a sum of a generalizedSérsic bulge and an exponential disk. The reliability andlimitations of our bulge-to-disk (B/D) decompositions are tested withextensive simulations of galaxy brightness profiles (one-dimensional)and images (two-dimensional). We have used repeat observations to testthe consistency of our decompositions. The average systematic modelerrors are <~20% and <~5% for the bulge and disk components,respectively. The final set of galaxy parameters is studied forvariations and correlations in the context of profile type differencesand wavelength dependencies. Galaxy types are divided into three classesaccording to their SB profile shapes: Freeman type I, type II, and athird ``transition'' class for galaxies whose profiles change from typeII in the optical to type I in the infrared. Roughly 43%, 44%, and 13%of type I, type II, and transition galaxies, respectively, comprise oursample. Only type I galaxies, with their fully exponential disks, areadequately modeled by our two-component decompositions, and our mainresults focus on these profiles. We discuss possible interpretations ofFreeman type II profiles. The Sérsic bulge shape parameter fornearby type I late-type spirals shows a range between n=0.1 and 2, but,on average, the underlying surface density profile for the bulge anddisk of these galaxies is adequately described by a double-exponentialdistribution. The distribution of disk scale lengths shows a decreasingtrend with increasing wavelength, consistent with a higher concentrationof old stars or dust (or both) in the central regions relative to theouter disk. We confirm a coupling between the bulge and disk with ascale length ratio =0.22+/-0.09, or=0.13+/-0.06 for late-typespirals, in agreement with recent N-body simulations of disk formation.This ratio increases from ~0.20 for late-type spirals to ~0.24 forearlier types. These observations are consistent with bulges oflate-type spiral galaxies being more deeply embedded in their host diskthan earlier type bulges. Bulges and disks can thus preserve a nearlyconstant re/h but show a great range of SB for any giveneffective radius. The similar scaling relations for early- and late-typespirals suggest comparable formation and/or evolution scenarios for diskgalaxies of all Hubble types. In the spirit of Courteau, de Jong, &Broeils but using our new, more extensive database, we interpret thisresult as further evidence for regulated bulge formation byredistribution of disk material to the galaxy center, in agreement withmodels of secular evolution of the disk.

An Investigation into the Prominence of Spiral Galaxy Bulges
From a diameter-limited sample of 86 low-inclination (face-on) spiralgalaxies, the bulge-to-disk size and luminosity ratios and otherquantitative measurements for the prominence of the bulge are derived.The bulge and disk parameters have been estimated using aseeing-convolved Sérsic r1/n bulge and aseeing-convolved exponential disk that were fitted to the optical (B, R,and I) and near-infrared (K) galaxy light profiles. In general,early-type spiral galaxy bulges have Sérsic values of n>1, andlate-type spiral galaxy bulges have values of n<1. In the B band,only eight galaxies have a bulge shape parameter n consistent with theexponential value 1, and only five galaxies do in the K band. Use of theexponential bulge model is shown to restrict the range ofre/h and B/D values by more than a factor of 2. Applicationof the r1/n bulge models, unlike exponential bulge models,results in a larger mean re/h ratio for the early-type spiralgalaxies than for the late-type spiral galaxies, although this result isshown not to be statistically significant. The mean B/D luminosity ratiois, however, significantly larger (>3 σ) for the early-typespirals than for the late-type spirals. Two new parameters areintroduced to measure the prominence of the bulge. The first is thedifference between the central surface brightness of the galaxy and thesurface brightness level at which the bulge and disk contribute equally.The other test uses the radius at which the contribution from the diskand bulge light are equal, normalized for the effect of intrinsicallydifferent galaxy sizes. Both of these parameters reveal that theearly-type spiral galaxies ``appear'' to have significantly (more than 2σ in all passbands) bigger and brighter bulges than late-typespiral galaxies. This apparent contradiction with the re/hvalues can be explained with an iceberg-like scenario, in which thebulges in late-type spiral galaxies are relatively submerged in theirdisk. This can be achieved by varying the relative stellar density whilemaintaining the same effective bulge-to-disk ratio. The B/D luminosityratio and the concentration index C31, in agreement with paststudies, are positively correlated and decrease as one moves along thespiral Hubble sequence toward later spiral galaxy types, although forgalaxies with large extended bulges the concentration index no longertraces the B/D luminosity ratio in a one-to-one fashion. A strong(Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient, rs=0.80) andhighly significant positive correlation exists between the shape, n, ofthe bulge light profile and the bulge-to-disk luminosity ratio. Theabsolute bulge magnitude-logn diagram is used as a diagnostic tool forcomparative studies with dwarf elliptical and ordinary ellipticalgalaxies. At least in the B band these objects occupy distinctlydifferent regions of this parameter space. While the dwarf ellipticalgalaxies appear to be the faint extension to the brighter ellipticalgalaxies, the bulges of spiral galaxies do not; for a given luminositythey have a noticeably smaller shape parameter and hence a more dramaticdecline of stellar density at large radii.

The QDOT all-sky IRAS galaxy redshift survey
We describe the construction of the QDOT survey, which is publiclyavailable from an anonymous FTP account. The catalogue consists ofinfrared properties and redshifts of an all-sky sample of 2387 IRASgalaxies brighter than the IRAS PSC 60-μm completeness limit(S_60>0.6Jy), sparsely sampled at a rate of one-in-six. At |b|>10deg, after removing a small number of Galactic sources, the redshiftcompleteness is better than 98per cent (2086/2127). New redshifts for1401 IRAS sources were obtained to complete the catalogue; themeasurement and reduction of these are described, and the new redshiftstabulated here. We also tabulate all sources at |b|>10 deg with noredshift so far, and sources with conflicting alternative redshiftseither from our own work, or from published velocities. A list of 95ultraluminous galaxies (i.e. with L_60μm>10^12 L_solar) is alsoprovided. Of these, ~20per cent are AGN of some kind; the broad-lineobjects typically show strong Feii emission. Since the publication ofthe first QDOT papers, there have been several hundred velocity changes:some velocities are new, some QDOT velocities have been replaced by moreaccurate values, and some errors have been corrected. We also present anew analysis of the accuracy and linearity of IRAS 60-μm fluxes. Wefind that the flux uncertainties are well described by a combination of0.05-Jy fixed size uncertainty and 8per cent fractional uncertainty.This is not enough to cause the large Malmquist-type errors in the rateof evolution postulated by Fisher et al. We do, however, find marginalevidence for non-linearity in the PSC 60-μm flux scale, in the sensethat faint sources may have fluxes overestimated by about 5per centcompared with bright sources. We update some of the previous scientificanalyses to assess the changes. The main new results are as follows. (1)The luminosity function is very well determined overall but is uncertainby a factor of several at the very highest luminosities(L_60μm>5x10^12L_solar), as this is where the remainingunidentified objects are almost certainly concentrated. (2) Thebest-fitting rate of evolution is somewhat lower than our previousestimate; expressed as pure density evolution with density varying as(1+z)^p, we find p=5.6+/-2.3. Making a rough correction for the possible(but very uncertain) non-linearity of fluxes, we find p=4.5+/-2.3. (3)The dipole amplitude decreases a little, and the implied value of thedensity parameter, assuming that IRAS galaxies trace the mass, isΩ=0.9(+0.45, -0.25). (4) Finally, the estimate of density varianceon large scales changes negligibly, still indicating a significantdiscrepancy from the predictions of simple cold dark matter cosmogonies.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Galaxy coordinates. II. Accurate equatorial coordinates for 17298 galaxies
Using images of the Digitized Sky Survey we measured coodinates for17298 galaxies having poorly defined coordinates. As a control, wemeasured with the same method 1522 galaxies having accurate coordinates.The comparison with our own measurements shows that the accuracy of themethod is about 6 arcsec on each axis (RA and DEC).

Near-infrared observations of galaxies in Pisces-Perseus. I. vec H-band surface photometry of 174 spiral
We present near-infrared, H-band (1.65 $() μm), surface photometry of174 spiral galaxies in the area of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. Theimages, acquired with the ARNICA camera mounted on various telescopes,are used to derive radial profiles of surface brightness, ellipticities,and position angles, together with global parameters such as H-bandmagnitudes and diameters Radial profiles in tabular form and images FITSfiles are also available upon request from gmorio@arcetri.astro.it.}.The mean relation between H-band isophotal diameter D_{21.5} and theB-band D25 implies a B-H color of the outer disk bluer than3.5; moreover, D_{21.5}/D25 depends on (global) color andabsolute luminosity. The correlations among the various photometricparameters suggest a ratio between isophotal radius D_{21.5}/2 and diskscale length of ~ m3.5 and a mean disk central brightness ~ meq 17.5H-mag arcsec^{-2}. We confirm the trend of the concentration indexC31$ with absolute luminosity and, to a lesser degree, withmorphological type. We also assess the influence of non-axisymmetricstructures on the radial profiles and on the derived parameters. Basedon observations at the TIRGO, NOT, and VATT telescopes. TIRGO(Gornergrat, CH) is operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri, Firenze. NOT (LaPalma, Canary Islands) is operated by NOTSA, the Nordic ObservatoryScientific Association. VATT (Mt. Graham, Az) is operated by VORG, theVatican Observatory Research Group Table 3 and Fig. 4 are only availablein electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.

Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.
A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Gas Mass Fractions and the Evolution of Spiral Galaxies
We show that the gas mass fraction of spiral galaxies is stronglycorrelated with luminosity and surface brightness. It is not correlatedwith linear size. Gas fraction varies with luminosity and surfacebrightness at the same rate, indicating evolution at fixed size. Dimgalaxies are clearly less evolved than bright ones, having consumed only~ \frac {1}{2} of their gas. This resolves the gas consumption paradox,since there exist many galaxies with large gas reservoirs. Thesegas-rich galaxies must have formed the bulk of their stellar populationsin the last half of a Hubble time. The existence of such immaturegalaxies at z = 0 indicates that either galaxy formation is a lengthy oreven ongoing process, or the onset of significant star formation can bedelayed for arbitrary periods in tenuous gas disks.

Near-infrared and optical broadband surface photometry of 86 face-on disk dominated galaxies. II. A two-dimensional method to determine bulge and disk parameters.
In this Paper I present a new two-dimensional decomposition technique,which models the surface photometry of a galaxy with an exponentiallight profile for both bulge and disk and, when necessary, with aFreeman bar. The new technique was tested for systematic errors on bothartificial and real data and compared with widely used one-dimensionaldecomposition techniques, where the luminosity profile of the galaxy isused. The comparisons indicate that a decomposition of thetwo-dimensional image of the galaxy with an exponential light profilefor both bulge and disk yields the most reproducible and representativebulge and disk parameters. An extensive error analysis was made todetermine the reliability of the model parameters. If the model with anexponential bulge profile is a reasonable description of a galaxy, themaximum errors in the derived model parameters are of order 20%. Theuncertainties in the model parameters will increase, if the exponentialbulge function is replaced by other often used bulge functions as the deVaucouleurs law. All decomposition methods were applied to the opticaland near-infrared data set presented by de Jong & van der Kruit(1994), which comprises 86 galaxies in six passbands.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

Arm structure in normal spiral galaxies, 1: Multivariate data for 492 galaxies
Multivariate data have been collected as part of an effort to develop anew classification system for spiral galaxies, one which is notnecessarily based on subjective morphological properties. A sample of492 moderately bright northern Sa and Sc spirals was chosen for futurestatistical analysis. New observations were made at 20 and 21 cm; thelatter data are described in detail here. Infrared Astronomy Satellite(IRAS) fluxes were obtained from archival data. Finally, new estimatesof arm pattern radomness and of local environmental harshness werecompiled for most sample objects.

Near-infrared and optical broadband surface photometry of 86 face-on disk dominated galaxies. I. Selection, observations and data reduction.
We present accurate surface photometry in the B, V, R, I, H and Kpassbands of 86 spiral galaxies. The galaxies in this statisticallycomplete sample of undisturbed spirals were selected from the UGC tohave minimum diameters of 2' and minor over major axis ratios largerthan 0.625. This sample has been selected in such a way that it can beused to represent a volume limited sample. The observation and reductiontechniques are described in detail, especially the not often useddriftscan technique for CCDs and the relatively new techniques usingnear-infrared (near-IR) arrays. For each galaxy we present radialprofiles of surface brightness. Using these profiles we calculated theintegrated magnitudes of the galaxies in the different passbands. Weperformed internal and external consistency checks for the magnitudes aswell as the luminosity profiles. The internal consistency is well withinthe estimated errors. Comparisons with other authors indicate thatmeasurements from photographic plates can show large deviations in thezero-point magnitude. Our surface brightness profiles agree within theerrors with other CCD measurements. The comparison of integratedmagnitudes shows a large scatter, but a consistent zero-point. Thesemeasurements will be used in a series of forthcoming papers to discusscentral surface brightnesses, scalelengths, colors and color gradientsof disks of spiral galaxies.

The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.

A catalog of 2810 nearby galaxies - The effect of the Virgocentric flow model on their observed velocities
A catalog of 2810 nearby galaxies is constructed on the basis of threesubcatalogs: galaxies with B(T) less than or equal to 13.4 mag, galaxieswith v0 less than or equal to 500 km/s, and galaxies having B(T) lessthan or equal to 14.95 mag and lying within a 10-deg cone around M87.The data are compiled in tables and graphs and characterized in detail.The distances to objects with known red shifts are determined in unitsof the Virgo-cluster distance, independent of H0, using two versions ofthe nonlinear Virgocentric-flow models of Silk (1974 and 1977) and shownto correspond to local Virgo-inflow rates of 220 and 440 km/s,respectively. The luminous-galaxy distribution is described as acell-like structure with several superclusters, chains ofinterconnecting galaxies, and large voids.

Isolated galaxies
A new list of isolated galaxies has been compiled in order to determinewhether or not a true isolated sample can be selected. The sampleselection and the statistical characteristics of the sample arediscussed. In agreement with previous findings, it is concluded that anunclustered background seems to be observationally and operationallymeaningless, and that clustering dominates in all regions of space.

A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.

101 spiral galaxies - Neutral hydrogen distribution
The neutral hydrogen properties of spiral galaxies have been measured atthe Arecibo Observatory using a 21 cm spectral line system. One hundredand thirty galaxies were observed, and 101 have been detected androughly mapped in H I. The data are used to derive the total mass ofneutral hydrogen gas, the gravitational mass, and a Gaussian hydrogendiameter for some galaxies. A large scatter in H I diameters within eachHubble type is reported and Sc galaxies appear to have smaller H Idiameters than Sb galaxies. Sb galaxies also show a strong tendency tohave asymmetric H I distributions. The H I profile is measured with thewidth at 50% the peak flux, and comparisons are made with the Green Bankmethod.

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Right ascension:00h43m32.50s
Aparent dimensions:1.549′ × 1.259′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 234

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