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HD 188753



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Dynamical Stability and Habitability of the γ Cephei Binary-Planetary System
It has been suggested that the long-lived residual radial velocityvariations observed in the precision radial velocity measurements of theprimary of γ Cephei (HR 8974, HD 222404, HIP 116727) are likelydue to a Jupiter-like planet orbiting this star. In this paper, thedynamics of this planet is studied, and the possibility of the existenceof a terrestrial planet around its central star is discussed.Simulations, which have been carried out for different values of theeccentricity and semimajor axis of the binary, as well as the orbitalinclination of its Jupiter-like planet, expand on previous studies ofthis system and indicate that, for the values of the binary eccentricitysmaller than 0.5, and for all values of the orbital inclination of theJupiter-like planet ranging from 0° to 40°, the orbit of thisplanet is stable. For larger values of the binary eccentricity, thesystem becomes gradually unstable. Integrations also indicate that,within this range of orbital parameters, a terrestrial planet, such asan Earth-like object, can have a long-term stable orbit only atdistances of 0.3-0.8 AU from the primary star. The habitable zone of theprimary, at a range of approximately 3.05-3.7 AU, is, however, unstable.

Gas Giant Protoplanets Formed by Disk Instability in Binary Star Systems
Gas giant planets have been discovered in binary or triple star systemswith a range of semimajor axes. We present a new suite ofthree-dimensional radiative gravitational hydrodynamics modelssuggesting that binary stars may be quite capable of forming planetarysystems similar to our own. One difference between the new and previouscalculations is the inclusion of artificial viscosity in the previouswork, leading to significant conversion of disk kinetic energy intothermal energy in shock fronts and elsewhere. New models are presentedshowing how vigorous artificial viscosity can help to suppress clumpformation. The new models with binary companions do not employ anyexplicit artificial viscosity and also include the third (vertical)dimension in the hydrodynamic calculations, allowing for transientphases of convective cooling. The new calculations of the evolution ofinitially marginally gravitationally stable disks show that the presenceof a binary star companion may actually help to trigger the formation ofdense clumps that could become giant planets. Earth-like planets wouldform much later in the inner disk regions by the traditional collisionalaccumulation of progressively larger, solid bodies. We also show that inmodels without binary companions, which begin their evolution asgravitationally stable disks, the disks evolve to form dense rings,which then break up into self-gravitating clumps. The latter modelssuggest that the evolution of any self-gravitating disk with sufficientmass to form gas giant planets is likely to lead to a period of diskinstability, even in the absence of a trigger such as a binary starcompanion.

Dynamical Interactions of Planetary Systems in Dense Stellar Environments
We study dynamical interactions of star-planet binaries with othersingle stars. We derive analytical cross sections for all possibleoutcomes and confirm them with numerical scattering experiments. We findthat a wide mass ratio in the binary introduces a region in parameterspace that is inaccessible to comparable-mass systems, in which thenature of the dynamical interaction is fundamentally different from whathas traditionally been considered in the literature on binaryscattering. We study the properties of the planetary systems that resultfrom the scattering interactions for all regions of parameter space,paying particular attention to the location of the ``hard-soft''boundary. The structure of the parameter space turns out to besignificantly richer than a simple statement of the location of thehard-soft boundary would imply. We consider the implications of ourfindings, calculating characteristic lifetimes for planetary systems indense stellar environments and applying the results to previousanalytical studies, as well as past and future observations. Since werecognized that the system PSR B1620-26 in the globular cluster M4 liesin the ``new'' region of parameter space, we performed a detailedanalysis quantifying the likelihood of different scenarios in formingthe system we see today.

A search for wide visual companions of exoplanet host stars: The Calar Alto Survey
We have carried out a search for co-moving stellar and substellarcompanions around 18 exoplanet host stars with the infrared camera MAGICat the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope, by comparing our images with imagesfrom the all sky surveys 2MASS, POSS I and II. Four stars of the samplenamely HD 80606, 55 Cnc, HD 46375 and BD-10°3166, arelisted as binaries in the Washington Visual Double Star Catalogue (WDS).The binary nature of HD 80606, 55 Cnc, and HD 46375 is confirmed withboth astrometry as well as photometry, thereby the proper motion of thecompanion of HD 46375 was determined here for the first time. We derivedthe companion masses as well as the longterm stability regions foradditional companions in these three binary systems. We can rule outfurther stellar companions around all stars in the sample with projectedseparations between 270 AU and 2500 AU, being sensitive to substellarcompanions with masses down to ˜ 60 {MJup} (S/N=3).Furthermore we present evidence that the two components of the WDSbinary BD-10°3166 are unrelated stars, i.e this system isa visual pair. The spectrophotometric distance of the primary (a K0dwarf) is ˜ 67 pc, whereas the presumable secondaryBD-10°3166 B (a M4 to M5 dwarf) is located at a distanceof 13 pc in the foreground.

Evolution of interacting binaries with a B type primary at birth
We revisited the analytical expression for the mass ratio distributionfor non-evolved binaries with a B type primary. Selection effectsgoverning the observations were taken into account in order to comparetheory with observations. Theory was optimized so as to fit best withthe observed q-distribution of SB1s and SB2s. The accuracy of thistheoretical mass ratio distribution function is severely hindered by theuncertainties on the observations. We present a library of evolutionarycomputations for binaries with a B type primary at birth. Some liberalcomputations including loss of mass and angular momentum during binaryevolution are added to an extensive grid of conservative calculations.Our computations are compared statistically to the observeddistributions of orbital periods and mass ratios of Algols. ConservativeRoche Lobe Over Flow (RLOF) reproduces the observed distribution oforbital periods but fails to explain the observed mass ratios in therange q in [0.4-1]. In order to obtain a better fit the binaries have tolose a significant amount of matter, without losing much angularmomentum.

An extrasolar giant planet in a close triple-star system
Hot Jupiters are gas-giant planets orbiting with periods of 3-9 daysaround Sun-like stars. They are believed to form in a disk of gas andcondensed matter at or beyond ~2.7 astronomical units (AU-the Sun-Earthdistance) from their parent star. At such distances, there exists asufficient amount of solid material to produce a core capable ofcapturing enough gas to form a giant planet. Subsequently, they migrateinward to their present close orbits. Here I report the detection of anunusual hot Jupiter orbiting the primary star of a triple stellarsystem, HD 188753. The planet has an orbital period of 3.35 days and aminimum mass of 1.14 times that of Jupiter. The primary star's mass is1.06 times that of the Sun, 1.06Msolar. The secondary star,itself a binary stellar system, orbits the primary at an averagedistance of 12.3AU with an eccentricity of 0.50. The mass of thesecondary pair is 1.63Msolar. Such a close and massivesecondary would have truncated a disk around the primary to a radius ofonly ~1.3AU (ref. 4) and might have heated it up to temperatures highenough to prohibit giant-planet formation, leaving the origin of thisplanet unclear.

Cluster Origin of the Triple Star HD 188753 and Its Planet
The recent discovery by M. Konacki of a ``hot Jupiter'' in thehierarchical triple star system HD 188753 challenges establishedtheories of giant planet formation. If the orbital geometry of thetriple has not changed since the birth of the planet, then a disk aroundthe planetary host star would probably have been too compact and too hotfor a Jovian planet to form by the core accretion model or gravitationalcollapse. This paradox is resolved if the star was initially eithersingle or had a much more distant companion. It is suggested here that aclose multistar dynamical encounter transformed this initial state intothe observed triple, an idea that follows naturally if HD 188753 formedin a moderately dense stellar system-perhaps an open cluster-that hassince dissolved. Three distinct types of encounters are investigated.The most robust scenario involves an initially single planetary hoststar that changes places with the outlying member of a preexistinghierarchical triple.

Planets in Triple Star Systems: The Case of HD 188753
We consider the formation of the recently discovered ``hot Jupiter''planet orbiting the primary component of the triple star system HD188753. Although the current outer orbit of the triple is too tight fora Jupiter-like planet to have formed elsewhere and migrated to itscurrent location, the binary may have been much wider in the past. Weassume here that the planetary system formed in an open star cluster,the dynamical evolution of which subsequently led to changes in thesystem's orbital parameters and binary configuration. We calculate crosssections for various scenarios that could have led to the multiplesystem currently observed and conclude that component A of HD 188753with its planet was most likely formed in isolation, to be swapped intoa triple star system by a dynamical encounter in an open star cluster.We estimate that within 500 pc of the Sun, there are about 1200planetary systems that, like HD 188753, have orbital parametersunfavorable for forming planets but still have a planet, making it quitepossible that the HD 188753 system was indeed formed by a dynamicalencounter in an open star cluster.

Speckle Observations of Binary Stars with the WIYN Telescope. IV. Differential Photometry
Five hundred seventy-six magnitude difference measures are presented for260 binary stars. These measures are derived from CCD-based speckleobservations taken at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak NationalObservatory during the period 1997-2000. Separations of the systemsrange from over 1" down to near the diffraction limit of the telescope.A study of multiple measures of the same targets indicates that themeasures have a typical uncertainty of better than 0.13 mag per 2 minuteobservation, and that multiple observations can be averaged to arrive atsmaller uncertainties. Results presented here are also compared, insofaras it is possible, with measures in the Hipparcos Catalogue and toprevious studies using adaptive optics. No major systematic errors wereidentified.The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University ofWisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the NationalOptical Astronomy Observatory.

Improved Astrometry and Photometry for the Luyten Catalog. II. Faint Stars and the Revised Catalog
We complete construction of a catalog containing improved astrometry andnew optical/infrared photometry for the vast majority of NLTT starslying in the overlap of regions covered by POSS I and by the secondincremental Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) release, approximately 44%of the sky. The epoch 2000 positions are typically accurate to 130 mas,the proper motions to 5.5 mas yr-1, and the V-J colors to0.25 mag. Relative proper motions of binary components are measured to 3mas yr-1. The false-identification rate is ~1% for11<~V<~18 and substantially less at brighter magnitudes. Theseimprovements permit the construction of a reduced proper-motion diagramthat, for the first time, allows one to classify NLTT stars intomain-sequence (MS) stars, subdwarfs (SDs), and white dwarfs (WDs). We inturn use this diagram to analyze the properties of both our catalog andthe NLTT catalog on which it is based. In sharp contrast to popularbelief, we find that NLTT incompleteness in the plane is almostcompletely concentrated in MS stars, and that SDs and WDs are detectedalmost uniformly over the sky δ>-33deg. Our catalogwill therefore provide a powerful tool to probe these populationsstatistically, as well as to reliably identify individual SDs and WDs.

Speckle Observations of Binary Stars with the WIYN Telescope. II. Relative Astrometry Measures during 1998-2000
Five hundred twelve relative astrometry measures are presented for 253double stars, including 53 double stars discovered by Hipparcos. In 15cases, relative astrometry is reported for the first time for newlyconfirmed pairs. In addition, 20 high-quality nondetections ofcompanions are reported for stars suspected of being nonsingle byHipparcos. Observations were taken using a fast-readout CCD camerasystem at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona. In comparingthese measures with ephemeris predictions for binary stars with verywell known orbits, we find that the measurement precision is better than3 mas in separation and 1° in position angle per individualobservation. Measurement precision and detection capabilities are fullydiscussed, and confirmed orbital motion is reported in four cases of theHipparcos double star discoveries. The WIYN Observatory is a jointfacility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University,Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory.

ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XXIII. Measurements during 1982-1997 from Six Telescopes, with 14 New Orbits
We present 2017 observations of 1286 binary stars, observed by means ofspeckle interferometry using six telescopes over a 15 year period from1982 April to 1997 June. These measurements constitute the 23dinstallment in CHARA's speckle program at 2 to 4 m class telescopes andinclude the second major collection of measurements from the MountWilson 100 inch (2.5 m) Hooker Telescope. Orbital elements are alsopresented for 14 systems, seven of which have had no previouslypublished orbital analyses.

Speckle Observations of Binary Stars with the WIYN Telescope. I. Measures During 1997
Two hundred seventy-seven position angle and separation measures of 154double stars are presented. Three of the systems were previously unknownto be double, and 16 other systems were discovered earlier this decadeby the Hipparcos satellite. Measures are derived from speckleobservations taken with the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) 3.5 mtelescope located at Kitt Peak, Arizona. Speckle images were obtainedusing two different imaging detectors, namely, a multianode microchannelarray (MAMA) detector and a fast-readout CCD. A measurement precisionstudy was performed on a sample of binaries with extremely well knownorbits by comparing the measures obtained here to the ephemerispredictions. For the CCD, the root mean square (rms) deviation ofresiduals was found to be 3.5 milliarcseconds (mas) in separation and1.2d in position angle, while the residuals of the MAMA data varieddepending on the magnification used and seeing conditions but can becomparable or superior to the CCD values. In addition, the two cameraswere compared in terms of the detection limit in total magnitude andmagnitude difference of the systems under study. The MAMA system has theability to detect some systems with magnitude differences larger than3.5, although reliable astrometry could not be obtained on theseobjects. Reliable astrometry was obtained on a system of magnitudedifference of 5.3 with the CCD system.

Visual binary orbits and masses POST HIPPARCOS
The parallaxes from Hipparcos are an important ingredient to derive moreaccurate masses for known orbital binaries, but in order to exploit theparallaxes fully, the orbital elements have to be known to similarprecision. The present work gives improved orbital elements for some 205systems by combining the Hipparcos astrometry with existing ground-basedobservations. The new solutions avoid the linearity constraints andomissions in the Hipparcos Catalog by using the intermediate TransitData which can be combined with ground-based observations in arbitarilycomplex orbital models. The new orbital elements and parallaxes give newmass-sum values together with realistic total error-estimates. To getindividual masses at least for main-sequence systems, the mass-ratioshave been generally estimated from theoretical isochrones and observedmagnitude-differences. For some 25 short-period systems, however, trueastrometric mass-ratios have been determined through the observedorbital curvature in the 3-year Hipparcos observation interval. Thefinal result is an observed `mass-luminosity relation' which falls closeto theoretical expectation, but with `outliers' due to undetectedmultiplicity or to composition- and age-effects in the nonuniformnear-star sample. Based in part on observations collected with the ESAHipparcos astrometry satellite. Tables~ 1, 3, 4 and 6 are also availablein electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr~( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

A test of Hipparcos parallaxes on multiple stars.
Not Available

Observations of Double Stars. XVIII.
Micrometer observations of 1350 pairs in 1995-1997 are listed.

Mass determination of astrometric binaries with Hipparcos. III. New results for 28 systems
This paper is the third of a series devoted to the determination ofstellar masses from Hipparcos data. This is a continuation of Martin etal. (1997), who introduced the theory and assessed the performance ofthe method from simulated data, and of a second paper with the firstresults for 46 systems, ( te[Martin & Mignard 1998]{Mar98}). Theorbit file maintained by the CHARA group and new publications of orbitalelements made the processing of 70 additional candidate systemspossible, including 28 of the 145 systems already tested in the previouswork. Significant results were obtained on 22 systems, with relativeaccuracy better than 25% for the masses of 17 binaries. New estimatesare also given for 6 systems previously investigated, thanks to reliablevalues of the magnitude difference from the Hipparcos catalogue ( te[ESA1997]{ESA97}). New orbital elements are proposed for HIP 12623 (12Persei) from speckle/spectroscopic measurements. Results are discussedfor each system, alongside the mass-luminosity relation based onHipparcos magnitudes and distances.

Micrometer measurements of double stars from the Spanish observatories at Calar Alto and Santiago de Compostela.
This paper reports 458 micrometer observations of visual double starsmade with the 152 cm. telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria,Spain) and with the 35 cm. telescope at Ramon Maria Aller Observatory(Santiago de Compostela, Spain). Tables 1 and 2 only available inelectronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Mass determination of astrometric binaries with Hipparcos. II. Selection of candidates and results
In a previous paper (\cite{Mar97}) we have shown that for double starswith orbital periods smaller than about 25 years, it was possible todetermine from the Hipparcos data, the mass ratio B of the components orthe difference between the mass and intensity ratios, beta -B, providedthe orbital elements of the relative orbit are available. From anextensive literature search we have selected 145 potential systems, ofwhich 46 yielded eventually a satisfactory solution. For eight systemswith the largest separations, the peculiarities of the natural directionassociated to the Hipparcos observations, the 'hippacentre', have beenfully exploited to derive the mass ratio of the components without anyadditional assumption. For the remaining 38, the derivation of the massratio was possible only by taking the magnitude difference between thetwo components from other sources. The parallax determinedsimultaneously, is then used to produce the individual masses of thecomponents. The astrophysical relevance of the results is discussed andwhen possible (17 systems) the masses are compared to ground-basedvalues.

ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XVII. Measurements During 1993-1995 From the Mount Wilson 2.5-M Telescope.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.1639H&db_key=AST

MSC - a catalogue of physical multiple stars
The MSC catalogue contains data on 612 physical multiple stars ofmultiplicity 3 to 7 which are hierarchical with few exceptions. Orbitalperiods, angular separations and mass ratios are estimated for eachsub-system. Orbital elements are given when available. The catalogue canbe accessed through CDS (Strasbourg). Half of the systems are within 100pc from the Sun. The comparison of the periods of close and widesub-systems reveals that there is no preferred period ratio and allpossible combinations of periods are found. The distribution of thelogarithms of short periods is bimodal, probably due to observationalselection. In 82\% of triple stars the close sub-system is related tothe primary of a wide pair. However, the analysis of mass ratiodistribution gives some support to the idea that component masses areindependently selected from the Salpeter mass function. Orbits of wideand close sub-systems are not always coplanar, although thecorresponding orbital angular momentum vectors do show a weak tendencyof alignment. Some observational programs based on the MSC aresuggested. Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

Spectroscopic Components in Multiple Systems - COUTEAU:327 and COUTEAU:542
Not Available

Radial velocity measurements of visual binary stars
Observations on a correlation radial spectrometer of 31 visual binarysystems with components of late-type spectral classes are reported. Theobservations were made in order to resolve the 180-deg ambiguity of thelongitude of the ascending node. For 11 systems with angular separationsgreater than 1.5 arcsec, the components' velocities were measuredseparately. For 12 systems with angular separations in the range 0.2-1.5arcsec, the sign of radial velocity was obtained with the differentialobservation method. Additional spectroscopic components were detected inthree systems. On the basis of the observations, the true ascending nodeof the orbit was determined for 16 systems. The velocities of the otherfive systems were measured without resolution into components.

Measurements of close binaries performed at PIC DU Midi
A total of 241 measurements of 119 close binaries observed with the 2-mTelescope Bernard Lyot at Pic du Midi Observatory are given. Themeasurements were performed with a micrometer with illuminated wires.

Binary-star measurements carried out at PIC DU Midi and at Nice
Data on 219 measurements of 103 close binaries observed with the 2mtelescope at Pic du Midi are presented. Also presented are data on 230measurements of 126 binaries observed with the 74 cm refractor of theNice Observatory.

Observations of double stars and new pairs. XIV
Results of a continuing survey of visual double stars are presented,including 4880 measurements made from February 1987 to November 1989.The positions in WDS format and Durchmusterung numbers are given for 194pairs first reported here. Micrometer measurements of 1142 doubles madewith the Swarthmore 61 cm refractor are presented. Magnitudes areestimated for some of the objects. Plate measurements, plateorientations, position angles, number of nights, and measured exposuresare given. Visual observations of 342 pairs obtained in May 1989 atCerro Tololo, mostly with the 1.0 m reflector, are reported.

Photographic astrometry of binary and proper-motion stars.
In the study of dwarf star distances and of binary-star masses at the61-cm Swarthmore refractor, parallaxes of 69 stars and systems wereobtained by processing some 5000 astrometric plates from April 1988 toJuly 1989. These results are listed along with 11 binary-star massratios and three unresolved pairs.

Radial-velocity measurements. III - Ground observations accompanying the HIPPARCOS satellite observation program: Measurements of the radial velocities of 391 stars in 12 fields
The radial velocities of 391 stars, obtained with the Fehrenbachobjective prism associated to the Schmidt telescope of the Observatoirede Haute-Provence are presented. These stars belong to fields speciallychosen for containing several Hipparcos input catalog star members. Eachfield is presented independently. The list includes HD and BDidentifiers when available, 1950 coordinates, spectral type, and B and Vmagnitudes as they appear in the CSI catalog, the radial velocity, theprobable error, the number of independent measurements and commentariessuch as known radial velocity and their origin.

The use of dwarf elliptical galaxies as distance indicators - The relative distances between Virgo, Fornax, and Centaurus
Photometric parameters derived from surface photometry of dwarfelliptical galaxies are used to determine the relative distance betweenthe Virgo, Fornax, and Centaurus clusters. The study uses a sample ofabout 25 dwarf elliptical galaxies in each cluster. With Virgo as thefiducial cluster, it is found that R(Fornax)/R(Virgo) = 0.93 + or - 0.07and R(Centaurus)/R(Virgo) = 1.91 + or - 0.07. The results are in goodagreement with those obtained by Aaronson et al. (1989) using the IRTully-Fisher relation.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:19h54m58.39s
Apparent magnitude:7.444
Distance:44.823 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-29.3
Proper motion Dec:288.4
B-T magnitude:8.425
V-T magnitude:7.525

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 188753
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 3145-504-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1275-12725246
HIPHIP 98001

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