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Speckle Observations of Binary Stars with a 0.5 m Telescope
We present 36 observations of 17 visual binaries of moderate separation(ranging from 0.15" to 0.790") made with the 50 cm Cassegrain telescopeof the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. The speckleinterferometry technique was combined with modest optical hardware and astandard photometric CCD camera. We used broadband VRI filters without aRisley prism to reduce differential color refraction. Thus, we performeda model analysis to investigate the influence of this effect on theresults of the measurements. For binary components of spectral type O-F,the difference of three spectral classes between them should bias theirrelative positions by no more than a couple of tens of milliarcseconds(mas) for moderate zenith distances. The statistical analysis of ourresults confirmed this conclusion. A cross-spectrum approach was appliedto resolve the quadrant ambiguity. Our separations have rms deviationsof 0.012", and our position angles have rms deviations of 1.8d. Relativephotometry in V, R, and I filters appeared to be the less accuratelydetermined parameter. We discuss our errors in detail and compare themto other speckle data. This comparison clearly shows the quite goodaccuracy of our measurements. We also present an example of theenhancement of image resolution for an extended object with an angularsize that is greater than the atmospheric coherence patch, using speckleinterferometry techniques.

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin i
This work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897

CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
The Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom.

Research Note Hipparcos photometry: The least variable stars
The data known as the Hipparcos Photometry obtained with the Hipparcossatellite have been investigated to find those stars which are leastvariable. Such stars are excellent candidates to serve as standards forphotometric systems. Their spectral types suggest in which parts of theHR diagrams stars are most constant. In some cases these values stronglyindicate that previous ground based studies claiming photometricvariability are incorrect or that the level of stellar activity haschanged. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/367/297

Two-colour photometry for 9473 components of close Hipparcos double and multiple stars
Using observations obtained with the Tycho instrument of the ESAHipparcos satellite, a two-colour photometry is produced for componentsof more than 7 000 Hipparcos double and multiple stars with angularseparations 0.1 to 2.5 arcsec. We publish 9473 components of 5173systems with separations above 0.3 arcsec. The majority of them did nothave Tycho photometry in the Hipparcos catalogue. The magnitudes arederived in the Tycho B_T and V_T passbands, similar to the Johnsonpassbands. Photometrically resolved components of the binaries withstatistically significant trigonometric parallaxes can be put on an HRdiagram, the majority of them for the first time. Based on observationsmade with the ESA Hipparcos satellite.

Speckle Interferometry at the US Naval Observatory. II.
Position angles and separations resulting from 2406 speckleinterferometric observations of 547 binary stars are tabulated. This isthe second in a series of papers presenting measures obtained using the66 cm refractor at the US Naval Observatory in Washington, DC, with anintensified CCD detector. Program stars range in separation from 0.2" to3.8", with Deltam<=2.5 mag and a limiting magnitude of V=10.0. Theobservation epochs run from 1993 January through 1995 August. Randomerrors are estimated to be 14 mas in separation and 0.52d/rho inposition angle, where rho is the separation in arcseconds. Theinstrumentation and calibration are briefly described. Aspects of thedata analysis related to the avoidance of systematic errors are alsodiscussed.

Measurements of double stars 1993.67 - 1998.13
624 Micrometer Measurements of 224 pairs with a 32.5 cm Cassegrain, 719Measurements of 310 double stars with a 360 mm Newtonian are given.Tables 1 to 4 are available in electronic form only at the CDS130.79.128.5 or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Behaviour of calcium abundance in Am-Fm stars with evolution
Calcium abundance in the atmosphere of Am stars is examined as afunction of their evolutionary state within the main sequence. Newspectroscopic abundances as well as abundances obtained photometricallyby Guthrie (1987) are used, since they are mutually quite consistent.The main result of this work is that, contrary to earlier suggestions,calcium abundance does not tend to be larger in evolved Am stars than inunevolved ones, for objects distributed along a given evolutionary trackin the HR diagram. The trend appears to be the reverse, if it is presentat all. For our whole sample of Am stars, there is a significantcorrelation between calcium abundance and effective temperature, in thesense that the cooler objects are the most Ca-deficient, hence have themost pronounced Am peculiarity. This implies an apparent correlationbetween calcium deficiency and age, although the lack of Am starsyounger than log t = 8.6 seems real. Our results are fully consistentwith the low rate of Am stars observed in young clusters and withtheoretical predictions of time-dependent radiative diffusion (Alecian1996). Based on observations collected at Observatoire de Haute Provence(CNRS), France, and on data from the ESA HIPPARCOS astrometry satellite.

Speckle Interferometry at the US Naval Observatory. I.
We present speckle interferometer measurements of 467 binary stars takenat the US Naval Observatory in Washington, DC, using the 66 cmrefractor, from 1990 October through 1992 December. The observingprogram is designed to provide high-quality observations of binaries inthe 0."3--3."5 range of separations and as faint as 10.0 mag. More than8000 measurements have been made to date, of which we report the resultsfor 2329. Not only is it our intent to provide accurate data forinteresting binary stars, but also, by careful calibration, to firmlyrelate the "classical" astrometry of binary stars to that being obtainedtoday by speckle and that which will soon be obtained by other moderntechniques such as long-baseline optical interferometry.

ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XVI. Measurements During 1982-1989 from the Perkins 1.8-M Telescope.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.1623F&db_key=AST

MSC - a catalogue of physical multiple stars
The MSC catalogue contains data on 612 physical multiple stars ofmultiplicity 3 to 7 which are hierarchical with few exceptions. Orbitalperiods, angular separations and mass ratios are estimated for eachsub-system. Orbital elements are given when available. The catalogue canbe accessed through CDS (Strasbourg). Half of the systems are within 100pc from the Sun. The comparison of the periods of close and widesub-systems reveals that there is no preferred period ratio and allpossible combinations of periods are found. The distribution of thelogarithms of short periods is bimodal, probably due to observationalselection. In 82\% of triple stars the close sub-system is related tothe primary of a wide pair. However, the analysis of mass ratiodistribution gives some support to the idea that component masses areindependently selected from the Salpeter mass function. Orbits of wideand close sub-systems are not always coplanar, although thecorresponding orbital angular momentum vectors do show a weak tendencyof alignment. Some observational programs based on the MSC aresuggested. Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

On the nature of the AM phenomenon or on a stabilization and the tidal mixing in binaries. II. Metallicity and pseudo-synchronization.
We reveal sufficient evidences that for Am binaries the metallicitymight depend on their orbital periods, P_orb_, rather than on vsini. Inparticular, δm_1_ index seems to decrease with increasing orbitalperiod up to at least P_orb_=~50d, probably even up to P_orb_=~200d.This gives further support to our "tidal mixing + stabilization"hypothesis formulated in Part I. Moreover, while the most metallic Amstars seem to have rather large periods the slowest rotators are foundto exhibit substantially shorter P_orb_. A questioning eye is thus caston the generally adopted view that Am peculiarity is caused by asuppressed rotationally induced mixing in slowly rotating `single'stars. The observed anticorrelation between rotation and metallicity mayhave also other than the `textbook' explanation, namely being the resultof the correlation between metallicity and orbital period, as themajority of Am binaries are possibly synchronized. We further argue thatthere is a tendency in Am binaries towards pseudo-synchronization up toP_orb_=~35d. This has, however, no serious impact on our conclusionsfrom Part I; on the contrary, they still hold even if this effect istaken into account.

New binary stars discovered by lunar occultations. III.
We report on a total of 20 occultation events of 16 binary sources,observed in the near infrared in the course of routine lunar occultationprograms at the TIRGO and Calar Alto observatories. The results consistin either discoveries of new binaries, or in re-observations of known orsuspected binaries where only incomplete information was available. Thispaper is the third in a series of similar reports (see Richichi et al.1994A&A...286..829R and 1996A&A...309..163R, hereafter Papers Iand II). For the following 9 stars, we detected a companion for thefirst time: SAO 160179, DO 10593, DO 11286, SAO 96515, SAO 96547, SAO164323, SAO 164360, SAO 164371, SAO 128391. Of these, SAO 96515 was asuspected lunar occultation binary, while SAO 160179 and SAO 96547 (aswell as SAO 146402 below) belong also to wider binary pairs. For thefollowing 4 stars, we confirm previous reports of binarity: SAO 161153,SAO 95419, SAO 146402, SAO 96810; for these stars, our IR measurementscomplement existing visual information: Finally, in the case of thethree stars SAO 93777, SAO 162050 and SAO 95456, a companion had alsobeen previously observed or suspected, but we could not detect it. Ournegative detection in these cases provides a constraint on thecharacteristics of the companion. The projected separations in ourpositive results cover a range of two orders of magnitude, from =~0.006"to =~0.6".

The TIRGO Lunar Occultation Program: Summary of the 1985-1995 Observations
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....112.2786R&db_key=AST

The photoelectric astrolabe catalogue of Yunnan Observatory (YPAC).
The positions of 53 FK5, 70 FK5 Extension and 486 GC stars are given forthe equator and equinox J2000.0 and for the mean observation epoch ofeach star. They are determined with the photoelectric astrolabe ofYunnan Observatory. The internal mean errors in right ascension anddeclination are +/- 0.046" and +/- 0.059", respectively. The meanobservation epoch is 1989.51.

On the nature of the AM phenomenon or on a stabilization and the tidal mixing in binaries. I. Orbital periods and rotation.
The paper casts a questioning eye on the unique role of the diffusiveparticle transport mechanism in explaining the Am phenomenon and arguesthat the so-called tidal effects might be of great importance incontrolling diffusion processes. A short period cutoff at =~1.2d as wellas a 180-800d gap were found in the orbital period distribution (OPD) ofAm binaries. The existence of the former can be ascribed to the state ofthe primaries with the almost-filled Roche lobes. The latter couldresult from the combined effects of the diffusion, tidal mixing andstabilization processes. Because the tidal mixing might surpassdiffusion in the binaries with the orbital periods P_orb_ less thanseveral hundred days and might thus sustain the He convection zone,which would otherwise disappear, no Am stars should lie below thisboundary. The fact that they are nevertheless seen there implies theexistence of some stabilization mechanism (as, e.g., that recentlyproposed by Tassoul & Tassoul 1992) for the binaries with orbitalperiods less than 180d. Further evidence is given to the fact that theOPD for the Am and the normal binaries with an A4-F1 primary arecomplementary to each other, from which it stems that Am stars are closeto the main sequence. There are, however, indications that they haveslightly larger radii (2.1-3 Rsun_) than expected for theirspectral type. The generally accepted rotational velocity cutoff at=~100km/s is shown to be of little value when applied on Am binaries ashere it is not a single quantity but, in fact, a function of P_orb_whose shape is strikingly similar to that of the curves of constantmetallicity as ascertained from observations. This also leads to thewell known overlap in rotational velocities of the normal and Am starsfor 402.5d.We have exploited this empirical cutoff function to calibrate thecorresponding turbulent diffusion coefficient associated with tidalmixing, having found out that the computed form of the lines of constantturbulence fits qualitatively the empirical shape of the curves ofconstant metallicity. As for larger orbital periods(20d55km/s found by Burkhart(1979) would then be nothing but a manifestation of insufficientlypopulated corresponding area of larger P_orb_.

The X-Ray Emission of A-Type Stars
From X-ray images in the ROSAT public archives, we determine soft X-rayfluxes, or flux upper limits, for 74 A-type stars, which have beenobserved during deep integrations with the PSPC. Nine supposedly single,late A stars (0.20 < B-V < 0.35) are found to coincide with X-raysources. The X-ray luminosities we infer for these stars range fromlevels comparable to the Active Sun, at log L_x ~27.6, to much brighteremission levels similar to those observed for active late-type binarysystems, near log L_x ~30.1. Another 10 sources are identified withearly A stars (0.0 < B-V < 0.2). Five of these are confirmeddouble stars, the rest are ostensibly single. The maximum luminosity wedetect in the early A stars, log L_x = 30.1, is 3.5 orders of magnitudebrighter than the X-ray upper limits for the nondetected stars.Additional study, including radial velocity monitoring and/or opticalinterferometry, will be needed to determine whether the putativelysingle X-ray emitting stars are in fact single, or whether theiremission is produced entirely or in part by unknown or unresolved binarycompanions. The level of X-ray emission associated with chemicallynormal, single A stars thus far appears to be uncorrelated with anyobvious stellar property, including the rotation rate, which is known togreatly influence the dynamo activity and the X-ray emission levels oflower mass stars. (SECTION: Stars)

The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

MK morphology of AM stars
We present the results of an analysis of the spectra obtained for asample of 27 Am stars. We find evidence for the presence of groups amongthese stars and argue that all Am stars exhibit a pseudoluminosityeffect.

MK morphological study of AM stars at 66 A/mm
The pseudoluminosity effect in the metallic line A-type stars found byAbt and Morgan (1976) is confirmed in a random sample of 27 Am stars.From a morphological study of their spectra in the wavelength interval3850-4400 A at a reciprocal dispersion of 66 A/mm, revised spectraltypes are given on the MK system for their K-line and metallic-linespectra. This shows that: (1) the segregation of weak Am from the Amstars largely agrees with that by Cowley et al. (1969); (2) all thestars in the sample are dwarfs according to their K-line classification;(3) more than 80 percent exhibit the pseudoluminosity effectsignificantly, with their metallic-line spectra resembling a giant oreven a supergiant in the violet (3850-4100 A), and a giant rather than adwarf in the blue region (4260-4400 A); and (4) in two-thirds of thestars under (3), the Sr II 4077 A line is found to have a markedlybrighter luminosity class compared to any region, and in more thanone-third of the sample it is comparable to that in Ap stars. Moreover,at least five stars exhibit characteristics which might suggest aspectrum variability; among these, the most striking example is 41 SexA. The metallic-line spectra of another five stars appear to be similarto A-shell type in different degrees. Less than 20 percent of the samplecomprises stars which do not show any significant differentialluminosity effect; these stars might have been misclassified or perhapsthey are in a quiescent state.

ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. V - Measurements during 1988-1989 from the Kitt Peak and the Cerro Tololo 4 M telescopes
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1990AJ.....99..965M&db_key=AST

ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. IV - Measurements during 1986-1988 from the Kitt Peak 4 M telescope
One thousand five hundred and fifty measurements of 1006 binary starsystems observed mostly during 1986 through mid-1988 by means of speckleinterferometry with the KPNO 4-m telescope are presented. Twenty-onesystems are directly resolved for the first time, including newcomponents to the cool supergiant Alpha Her A and the Pleiades shellstar Pleione. A continuing survey of The Bright Star Catalogue yieldedeight new binaries from 293 bright stars observed. Corrections tospeckle measures from the GSU/CHARA ICCD speckle camera previouslypublished are presented and discussed.

Binary star measurements made at Nice with the 50-cm reflector
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1989A&AS...77..125L&db_key=AST

Spectroscopic binaries - 15th complementary catalog
Published observational data on the orbital characteristics of 436spectroscopic binaries, covering the period 1982-1986, are compiled intables. The data sources and the organization of the catalog are brieflydiscussed, and notes are provided for each item.

ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. II - Measurements during 1982-1985 from the Kitt Peak 4 M telescope
This paper represents the continuation of a systematic program of binarystar speckle interferometry initiated at the 4 m telescope on Kitt Peakin late 1975. Between 1975 and 1981, the observations were obtained witha photographic speckle camera, the data from which were reduced byoptical analog methods. In mid-1982, a new speckle camera employing anintensified charge-coupled device as the detector continued the programand necessitated the development of new digital procedures for reducingand analyzing speckle data. The camera and the data-processingtechniques are described herein. This paper presents 2780 newmeasurements of 1012 binary and multiple star systems, including thefirst direct resolution of 64 systems, for the interval 1982 through1985.

E. W. Fick Observatory stellar radial velocity measurements. I - 1976-1984
Stellar radial velocity observations made with the large vacuumhigh-dispersion photoelectric radial velocity spectrometer at FickObservatory are reported. This includes nearly 2000 late-type starsobserved during 585 nights. Gradual modifications to this instrumentover its first eight years of operation have reduced the observationalerror for high-quality dip observations to + or - 0.8 km/s.

Improved study of metallic-line binaries
For the sake of completeness, a new study has been made of the frequencyof binaries among classical metallic-line (Am) stars and of thecharacteristics of these systems. For an initial sample of 60 Am stars,about 20 coude spectra and radial velocities were obtained each. Whencombined with excellent published orbital elements for some systems, thenew material yields 16 SB2s, 20 SB1s, and 20 visual and occultationcompanions not already counted as spectroscopic companions. Extensivedetails are given about the observations, radial velocities, and binaryorbits. Evolutionary expansion during their main sequence lifetime isseen as an additional mechanism (besides tidal braking) acting in closebinaries to lower rotational velocities below 100 km/s.

Lists of photometric AM candidates
The Geneva photometric m parameter (Nicolet and Cramer, 1982) is used inorder to select Am photometric candidates from the Rufener (1981)catalogue. Two lists are given, the first containing field stars and thesecond cluster stars. According to the photometric criteria thediffusion process probably responsible for the Am phenomenon takes placerather quickly as Am candidates are present in young clusters. It isconfirmed that the phenomenon is enhanced by low rotational velocity andhigh metallicity. The age seems to slightly affect the Am phenomenon.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:06h14m28.60s
Apparent magnitude:5.88
Distance:138.696 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-3.9
Proper motion Dec:-11.7
B-T magnitude:6.214
V-T magnitude:5.942

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 42954
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 1318-1195-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1050-03210048
BSC 1991HR 2214
HIPHIP 29616

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